What is blockchain technology?

What is blockchain technology?

What is blockchain technology?

Blockchains are distributed (i.e., without a single repository) and decentralized digital ledgers that are tamper-proof and resilient. At their basic level, they allow users to post transactions on a shared ledger within that group. The result is that no transaction can be modified once it has been published in the blockchain network’s standard operation. The blockchain concept was integrated with many other computing technologies and ideas in 2008 to create modern cryptocurrencies:

Cryptographic processes protect electronic money and not by a central repository or authority.

Blockchain implementations are often built with a specific goal or function in mind. Cryptocurrency, intelligent contracts, and enterprise distributed ledger systems are examples of the functionality. Bitcoin was the first blockchain-based cryptocurrency to allow users to share data publicly, allowing participants to verify the transaction’s validity independently. Cryptocurrencies are based on blockchain technology, named after the heavy use of cryptographic functions.

Users use public and private keys to sign and conduct secure transactions within the system digitally. Users can solve puzzles using cryptographic hash functions to get a fixed amount of money on cryptocurrency-based blockchain networks that involve mining. The field of blockchain technology has seen a steady stream of advancements, with new platforms being launched regularly; the environment is constantly changing. In addition to cryptocurrencies, blockchain technology can establish a permanent, public, and transparent record system for collecting sales. Data, track digital usage and make payments to content creators like musicians. This article explains blockchain technology and provides an overview of how it works.

How does blockchain work?

The fundamental goal of a blockchain is to allow people, especially those who do not trust each other, to communicate essential data in a secure and tamper-proof way. Hash function, blocks, nodes, miners, wallets, digital signatures and logs are the different main concepts in the blockchain.

Hash function

Suppose ten people in a room decide to create a new coin. They need to track the flow of funds to ensure the validity of the cash in their new monetary ecosystem. However, someone else, let’s call him Jack, decided to steal money. To hide this, he changed the diary entries.

Then one day, Bob noticed that someone had tampered with his journal. He decided to change the format of his diary to avoid future tampering. They used a hash function program that converts text into a series of numbers and letters, as shown in the table below. This process uses a secure hash algorithm, or SHA, that converts letters into strings. Bob can choose different SHA types, each with additional complexity and requirements.

A hash is a sequence of numbers and letters generated by hash functions. A hash function is a mathematical function that converts a variable number of characters into a string of a fixed number of characters. Just a tiny change to a line creates an entirely new hash. After each journal entry, Bob inserted a soup. But then Jack decided to change the tickets again.

I got to the journal, changed the record and generated a new hash. Bob realised that someone had looked through the diary again. He decided to make it difficult to record every transaction. After each record, it inserted a new hash generated from the last recorded hash.

If Jack tries to change the record, he must change all previous entries’ hash. However, Jack is a die-hard thief and spends the whole night counting all the soups. Not wanting to give up, Bob added a different random number after each record. This number is called “Nonce.” The nonces should be chosen so that the generated hash ends with two zeros.


Bob’s initial table of 5,000 transactions is called the Genesis block, the starting point of this blockchain. The adoption of this currency has spread, so transactions are carried out quickly and frequently. New blocks are created, which can also contain up to 5,000 transactions, and have codes that correlate with previous blocks, so they cannot be forged. Suppose this blockchain is updated with a new block every 10 minutes. It does it automatically.

No central computer directs the computers to do this. Once the table, ledger, or record is updated, it cannot be modified. Therefore, it is impossible to fake it. You can only add new entries to it. Registration is updated simultaneously on all computers on the network.

Changes to blockchains require the consensus of most network participants. A potential risk to a blockchain is a “51% attack,” where one party breaks most of a blockchain’s hash rate, allowing it to dictate the network. Generally, a block contains a timestamp, a reference to the previous block, the transactions, and the computational problem that had to be solved before the league was included on the blockchain. The distributed network of nodes that must reach consensus makes fraud almost impossible within the blockchain.


Bob kept the journal this way for a short time. However, as new transactions continued, he soon became overwhelmed by the number of records and saw that his current system was not viable. Once his diary reached 5,000 transactions, he turned it into a one-page spreadsheet. Mary verified the accuracy of all trades. Bob then sent his spreadsheet journal to 3,000 different computers in another region.

These computers are called nodes. Every time a transaction takes place, it has to be approved by these nodes, each of which checks the transaction’s validity. Once each node has verified a trade, some electronic voting takes place. They believe the transaction is valid, while others may see it as fraudulent. Each node has a copy of the spreadsheet journal.

Each node verifies the validity of each transaction. When most nodes say a transaction is valid, it is written into a block. Now when Jack wants to change an entry in the table, all other computers have the original hash. They will not allow changes.


Mining is the process by which miners add new blocks to the chain. Each block in a blockchain has its unique nonce and hash, but it is also related to the hash of the previous block in the chain, making mining a block difficult, especially in large chains. Miners use specialized software to solve the complex mathematical problem of generating an acceptable hash using a nonce. Since the nonce is only 32 bits long and the soup is 256 bits long, I must mine about four billion nonce-hash combinations before I find the right one. When this happens, miners are deemed to have discovered the “golden nonce,” and their block is added to the chain.

Changing an earlier block in the chain requires re-mining the affected block and all subsequent blocks. Therefore, manipulation of blockchain technology is so tricky. When a block is successfully mined, all nodes in the network will recognize the change, and the miner will receive financial compensation.

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