Each network participant maintains, authorizes, and updates new entries with the distributed network of blockchain architecture. An assortment of blocks with transactions in a specific order signifies the structure of blockchain technology. Blockchain architecture can take public, private, or consortium forms. The layered architecture of the blockchain is divided into six layers.
Hardware infrastructure layer
The blockchain’s content is stored on a server in a data center somewhere in this beautiful world. Clients request content or data from application servers while surfing the web or using an application known as client-server architecture. Clients can now connect to peer clients and exchange data. A peer-to-peer (P2P) network is a large group of computers that share data. Blockchain is a peer-to-peer network of computers that calculates, validates, and records transactions in an orderly manner in a shared ledger.
As a result, a distributed database is created that stores all relevant data, transactions and other data. A node is a computer in a P2P network.
The data structure of a blockchain is expressed as a linked list of blocks into which transactions are classified. The blockchain data structure contains two essential elements: pointers and a linked list. A linked list consists of concatenated data blocks and pointers to the previous block. Pointers are variables that point to the location of another variable, and a linked list is a list of concatenated blocks of data and pointers to the previous block. The Merkle tree is a binary tree of hashes.
Each block contains the root hash of the Merkle tree and information such as hash, timestamp, nonce, block version number and the current difficulty goal of the previous block. A Merkle tree provides security, integrity, and irrefutability for blockchain systems. The blockchain system is based on Merkle trees, cryptography and consensus algorithms. Since it is the first in the chain, the genesis block, i.e., the first block, does not contain the pointer.
Transactions are digitally signed to ensure the security and integrity of the data on the blockchain. Transactions are marked with a private key, and the signer may be verified by anybody holding the public key. The digital signature detects the manipulation of information. Encrypted data is also signed, and digital signatures secure the drive. Therefore, any manipulation will invalidate the signature.
The data cannot be discovered because it is encrypted. They cannot be manipulated again, even if they are recognized. A digital signature also protects the identity of the sender or owner. This means that a signature is legally bound to its owner and cannot be ignored.
The network layer, the P2P layer, oversees node-to-node communication. The network layer takes care of detection, transactions, and block propagation. The propagation level is another name for this level. This P2P layer ensures that nodes can meet, interact, propagate and synchronize to keep the blockchain network in a legitimate state. A P2P network is a computer network where the nodes are dispersed and share the workload to accomplish a single goal. Nodes perform blockchain transactions.
The consensus layer is essential for the existence of blockchain platforms. The consensus layer is the most necessary and critical in any blockchain, be it Ethereum, Hyperledger or others. The consensus layer is responsible for validating the blocks and ordering them. And make sure everyone agrees.
Smart contracts, chain code and decentralized applications (DApps) form the application layer. Application and execution layers are separated in application layer protocols. The applications that end users use to interact with the blockchain are part of the application layer. Network. This includes code, user interfaces, frameworks, and application programming interfaces (APIs). These applications interact with the blockchain network through APIs as the back-end technology.
The execution layer includes chain code, smart contracts, and underlying logic. A transaction is approved and carried out in the semantic layer even though it passes from the application layer to the execution layer. Applications give instructions to the execution layer, which then performs transactions and maintains the blockchain’s determinism.